About Rammed Earth
Rammed earth is a structural wall system built of natural mineral soils compacted in thin layers within sturdy formwork. The strength and durability of the wall results from the densification of a clay, sand, and gravel matrix. The mass of the wall provides superior thermal and acoustic properties.
To build a rammed earth wall, moist soil is compacted layer at a time inside of a strong mold or form. The forms can be removed immediately and the fresh wall is capable of supporting loads. It continues to cure and gain strength slowly over time. In the early days, rammed earth was primitive. Forms were small, cumbersome, and imprecise; soil was taken directly from the base of the wall and carried to the forms in baskets; the soil often included sticks and small boulders; joints between wall sections were crude and jagged. Early rammed earth was used primarily as an efficient conversion of an available resource into a serviceable wall, one which would keep marauders out of the village or cold and damp out of the hut. The rammed earth method remained virtually unchanged for several thousand years.
Over time, refinements to formwork and soil preparation began to elevate the method from the primitive and merely serviceable to a position of respect and wider acceptance. Eighteenth and nineteenth century architects, builders, and agronomists in Europe and the United States introduced elements of standardization and science that resulted in major improvements to the technology. Reasons for use continued to be economy and convenience of resource. Rammed earth remained in the backwater of the construction vernacular for two hundred more years until it was rediscovered in the mid 1970’s.
This twentieth century re-birth of the technology was prompted by premonitions of an impending global environmental crisis. The first hints of an end to oil, an expanding ozone hole, and health concerns stemming from toxins in houses inspired a search for natural alternatives in energy production and building materials. Rammed earth, built of unprocessed mineral soil and capable of storing passive solar energy, presented an ideal building alternative.
Recent improvements in all aspects of rammed earth technology have combined to give it increased respect within the architectural community and to place it near the top of the list of green building alternatives. Although rammed earth can serve as simply a resource-conserving thermal flywheel, in other applications it is celebrated as functional art.
Several factors affect the final appearance of a rammed earth wall. The most significant variable is the mix design itself: the proportioning of fine and coarse particles, the color of the mineral soil, the angularity of the gravel. Other controls over final appearance are formwork, delivery method, lift depth, strata alignment, compaction technique, curing, sealing, surface treatments, and cosmetic remediation.
About David Easton
In 1978, David Easton founded Rammed Earth Works and laid the foundation for what would become the modern rammed earth movement. Over the course of thirty-five years David has continually pushed the envelope of earthen materials applications. He is the inventor of the California forming system for rammed earth, now in use on five continents, of the PISE method of high-pressure air installation for monolithic earth walls, and most recently of the equipment and processes for manufacturing earth masonry units. His engineering approach to stabilized earth construction resulted in the first building permits issued in seismic zone 4, and his dedication to low-tech construction solutions has contributed to the global renaissance of rammed earth.
David has been involved in the design, permitting, and construction of over three hundred residential and commercial stabilized earth projects. His client list includes Fetzer Vineyards, Stags Leap Wine Cellars, Long Meadow Ranch Winery, the Las Vegas Springs Preserve, Disney Worldwide Services, River Ranch Farmworker Housing, Camp Arroyo Environmental Education Center, the Rukinga Garment Factory in Kenya, Tim Mondavi, Barry Schuler, Al Merck, and Mike Korchinsky.
David is the author of three books on Rammed Earth and numerous articles and presentations. He has lectured at Stanford, MIT, CAL Berkeley, UC Davis, University of Oregon, SCIARC, SFIA, University of West Australia, University of Auckland, and the College of Architecture Grenoble. He has conducted training programs in Japan, Mexico, Nicaragua, Brazil, Kenya, Canada and the US, and has introduced the concept of earth masonry units to the design team at Masdar City, United Arab Emirates.
In 2002 David established the East Maui Environmental Research Center which focuses on sustainable island building practices. He and his staff are growing bamboo and coconut palm for structural construction elements while investigating the lava and native aggregates for use in wall systems that will deter fruit rats and termites, the bane of tropical building materials.
David holds a BS in Product Design from Stanford University, class of 1970.
About Watershed Block
Probably want to modify this text to make it clear that Watershed Materials is an evolution from Rammed Earth Works, etc. Needs more of an intro.
Watershed Materials produces a green, low carbon, sustainable building unit called the Watershed Block.
Most masonry products used in construction today - including the ubiquitous cinder block - are made by mixing sand and gravel together with Portland cement, a notorious contributor to global CO2 levels. Limestone must be heated to 2700 degrees fahrenheit to make cement, which uses large amounts of fossil fuels. Add to that the energy required to blast and crush virgin rock into gravel and you have a huge carbon footprint.
Watershed Block presents a solution to these environmental problems - a beautiful and versatile masonry unit made of locally-sourced earth and recycled aggregates. Watershed Blocks are manufactured using a proprietary process and activator that actually fuse soil grains and fragments of rock together into a type of sedimentary rock. The result is a rectangular, hollow-celled “industrial stone”, as strong as a concrete block yet with a character, tone, and resonance that expresses local site attributes and adds beauty and depth to architectural designs.
There is an inherent warmth in the color and texture of a Watershed Block, made from natural quartz grains and other minerals.
Rock forms in nature over the course of millions of years as pressure accumulates on top of deposited sediments and fuses the loose grains into solid stone. In geology this process is called lithification - literally “rock growing”. Watershed Materials uses a similar process to make blocks. We start with a precise combination of rock fragments, quartz grains, feldspars, clays, and accessory minerals and then apply intense hydraulic force to mimic the weight of twenty thousand feet of sediment. The result is a dependable structural building block with the appearance of stone and low environmental impact.
We have a goal at Watershed: to make a durable building block from natural materials.Watershed blocks have the visual complexity of sedimentary rock with a shape and design criteria that fit seamlessly into current masonry building typologies - big change, small carbon footprint.